听说法的基本原则——自考《外语教学法》第五

  第四节 听说法的基本原则

  1.Main features(主要特征)

  By drawing on the structural linguistics and behaviourist psychology,the Audiolingual Method formed its own distinctive characteristics.There are mainly five of them:(以结构语言学和行为心理学为基础,听说法形成自己独有的特征,主要表现出以下五种:)

  (1)Separation of language skills into listening,speaking,reading and writing,with emphasis on the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing(把语言分成听、说、读、写四种技能,在教学中强调先听说,后读写)

  (2)Use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting the language(对话是语言教学中的主要形式)

  (3)Emphasis on certain practice techniques:mimicry,memorization and pattern drills(强调模仿、记忆和句型操练等技巧)

  (4)Discouraging the use of the mother tongue in the classroom(在课堂教学中避免使用母语)

  (5)Use of language lab(使用语言实验室)

  Among the five principles of the Audiolingual Method,we think“Language is speech,not writing” and “Languages are different” are more acceptable to us.The former means that language is first speech and written form is only the recording of speech.Speech is more basic to language than the written form.In the classroom,the language skills are taught in the order of listening,speaking,reading and writing.The later means that the native language and the target language have separate linguistic systems,so there is usually no exact equivalent between two languages.The habits of the students’ native language would interfere with the students’ attempts to master the target language.They should be kept apart so that the students’ native language interferes as little as possible with the students’ learning of the foreign language.(在听说法的五条原则中, 我们认为,“语言是口头的话语,而不是笔头的文字”和“语言各不相同”比较容易接受。前者意味着语言首先是口语表达,书面形式只是口语的记录。对于语言来说,口语表达比书面形式要更基本。在课堂上,语言技能的教授按照听、说、读、写的顺序进行。后者意味着本族语和外语具有不同的语言体系,所以两种语言的意义往往不完全对等。学生本族语的语言习惯将干扰和影响他们对外语的学习和掌握。在学生学习外语的过程中要排除本族语的习惯影响,以尽可能地减少母语对外语学习的干扰。)

  2.Objectives(教学目标)

  The general objective of the Audiolingual Method is to enable the students to use the target language communicatively.Short-range objectives include training in listening comprehension,accurate pronunciation,reading comprehension and production of correct sentences in writing.In other words,the objectives of the Audiolingual Method are the development of mastery in all four language skills,beginning with listening and speaking,and using these as a basis for the teaching of reading and writing .Long-range objective,or the ultimate goal,is to develop in the students the same types of abilities that native speakers have,to use it automatically without stopping to think.(听说法的主要教学目标是使学生能够学会用外语进行交际。近期目标包括训练学生的听力理解能力、准确的发音、阅读理解能力和在写作中正确使用句子的能力。就是说,听说法的教学目标是发展学生的四种语言能力,从听说开始,以此为基础来教读写。远期目标,或称最终目标,是培养学生的语言能力,使他们像本族语者一样,能够自如地运用目标语。)

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